Most of us learned as children that sharing is a good thing. We didn't know we were practicing philanthropy -- we just knew that giving to other people or important causes made us feel good. Decades ago, many people tended to give to the organizations that touched their lives, such as churches, hospitals and schools. (Those three are still among the most popular recipients of charitable giving.)
Today, there are more than 600,000 charities and foundations operating in the United States, representing, it seems, every conceivable cause on the planet. Charities are making their presence known through elaborate ad campaigns, Web sites and high-profile fundraisers. But these more organized, more visible efforts are necessary, charities say, because:
- Their services are more in demand than ever.
- Government funding is declining and -- in many cases -- disappearing.
- The cost of everything continues to spiral upward.
Americans have responded generously -- charitable giving in 1999 totaled $175 billion, an all-time high, according to Philanthropy News Digest. Who's doing the giving? People like you and me, according to the Council of Better Business Bureaus, which reports that individual gifts represent about 80 percent of the money raised by charities in the United States. Along with increased giving, donors have become more savvy and now require greater accountability from the charities to which they give. In this edition of Stuff.dewsoftoverseas.com, we'll take a close look at how philanthropy works, the various ways in which you can contribute and how you can make sure your donation is going where it should. And we'll also discuss tax-deductible gifts and look at volunteerism, another way of giving.
What Is Philanthropy and How Do Philanthropic Organizations Work?
At its core, philanthropy is anything that represents a direct effort to help others -- ideally, effort expended without expectations of getting something in return. Many organizations directly benefit people who need help; others, such as conservation nonprofits (see How The Nature Conservancy Works), contribute in ways that indirectly but significantly affect us and our children and our grandchildren. We are free to give our money to charities that assist causes we believe are important.
The size of the gift isn't what characterizes a philanthropist -- Nationally, an independent survey found that people in the lowest income brackets tend to donate as much or more than their higher-wage counterparts. According to the National Charities Information Bureau, the average American household donates about 2 percent of its annual income. Most charities say that they still rely on these individual gifts for survival.
How Do I Know If a Charity Is Legitimate?
Experts assert that a legitimate and efficient charity should be using 50 to 60 cents of each dollar it receives to conduct the actual charitable work and use the remaining funds to pay for administrative, marketing and other operational expenses.
To find out how efficient a charity is, you can start by checking out the organization with the local charity registration office (usually a division of the state attorney general's office) and with your local Better Business Bureau. (Licensing does not equal governmental endorsement of the charity!)
There are also numerous non-commercial organizations, such as the Council of Better Business Bureaus, The Foundation Center and Guidestar (Philanthropic Research, Inc.'s Web site), as well as professional organizations for nonprofit administrators. It's always helpful to read up on what's going on in the world of philanthropy -- check out some of the philanthropy journals (such as Philanthropy) online and in the library.
You can actually check to see the amount of your dollar that goes directly to charitable work on that organization's required annual Form 990. Web sites for both Philanthropic Research, Inc. and the Urban Institute's National Center for Charitable Statistics make available the latest 990 forms for 61,000 private foundations. The two groups also posted Forms 990 for more than 200,000 public charities in October 1999. (Read more about this.)
Charities and foundations are required to complete this form once a year, and this information must be made available to potential donors upon request. (Many forthcoming charities actually post their financial information on their Web sites.)
The specific information on these forms and in a charity's annual report will give you a good idea of how the charity works, who governs it (most have directors and boards) and where and how it spends money to address its concerns and run its operation. In these reports, you should be able to see the major expense categories, including program services, management/operation and fund raising. The Better Business Bureau's suggests the following guidelines:
Generally, BBB standards say, at least half of the charity's total income should be spent on programs and at least half of public contributions should be spent on the programs described in advertisements and appeals. No more than 35 percent of the contributions should be spent on fund raising, and no more than half of the charity's total income should go to administrative and fund-raising costs. If it seems that a charity's administrative or fund-raising costs are too high, there could be extenuating circumstances. For example, it's natural for a new charity to have higher fund-raising costs than an established one.
- Program service costs (research grants made to scientists, food sent to feed hungry families or public information brochures aimed at explaining a disease.
- Management/operational costs (expenses associated with the day-to-day operation of the charity, including rent, office supplies and salaries of administrative staff)
- Fund-raising costs (printing and mailing of appeals, advertising and fees paid to professional fundraisers)
All charities solicit support in various ways, using in-person, phone, Internet and direct mail methods. Any information you receive should clearly identify the charity and state its purpose.
It has become common practice in modern fund raising for charities to share, swap and sell lists of donors. For example, when you give to a charity, your name and address may be exchanged, borrowed or sold to other nonprofits or even to for-profit companies. Charities who do this say that not only do these activities provide additional income, but they also help them to locate new donors and to reach a broader group with mailings about important issues. According to the Better Business Bureau's Philanthropic Advisory Service, a major charity mailing may involve up to millions of letters -- something that often requires the use of many different mailing lists.
If you don't want your name on these mailing lists, there are a couple of steps you can take. Increasingly, because of the way many people react to unsolicited mail, charities are disclosing their mailing list policies and providing an opportunity on their printed donor cards or Internet forms for you to ask that your name not be shared.
If you're already getting more mail solicitations than you want, you can write to the organizations and request that your name be removed from their mailing lists. This may or may not work -- keep a copy of the letter and if you feel you're being harassed (by mail, phone or in person), contact the BBB's Philanthropic Advisory Service for suggestions and assistance.
How Can I Make My Contribution?
Obviously, there are still charities, such as the Salvation Army, that are happy to take your cash. However, today there are several ways that you can make your charitable contributions:
- Make a donation by check (that way you have a record of your gift for tax purposes). Make the check payable to the charity, not the solicitor. And don't donate anything until you have the charity's exact name, address and phone number. (If you're being solicited in person, insist on seeing identification.) You should also ask the organization's purpose, how it tries to reach its goals (by awarding grants, conducting research, etc.) and how much of your dollar is used for true charitable purposes. And be sure that you know whether your donation is tax-deductible.
- Bequeath funds, land, etc. as part of your will. You'll want to discuss this with your attorney as well as with gift or development officers from the organization to which you want to give.
- Donate products, such as computers or used cars, and services. This is a growing area: More than $300 million in computer technology, office supplies, clothing, furniture, building materials, emergency supplies and educational materials is given annually by more than 40 percent of the Fortune 500 companies that manufacture or retail products and by many other corporations. Gifts in Kind International is the world's largest product philanthropy charity, directly donating to the needy as well as creating partnerships between companies and more than 50,000 nonprofits around the world.
What About Giving Via the Internet?
Like most businesses and organizations, charities have taken their fund raising to the Internet. Experts estimate that there are presently more than 300,000 Web sites for nonprofits. This makes sense -- a Web site is a relatively inexpensive way to promote a cause, recruit volunteers and raise money.
As Internet consumers have already found, fraud is always a concern. Earlier this year, a Better Business Bureau in Austin, Texas learned about a person who was using the Internet to solicit $1 donations (on checks made out to "cash" and sent to a private P.O. box) for tornado victims and actually pocketing the money. In another case, a group ran misleading ads that claimed that, for $19.95, they could help anyone obtain "free" cash from private charitable foundations. Chain letters are another cause for concern.
Experts suggest that you try to steer clear of these kinds of problems by using these tips:
- Many charities' names are similar, so note carefully the one with which you're concerned.
- If you'd like more detailed information on a charity's finances or programs, e-mail them your request.
- Before you decide to contribute online via credit card, make sure that the charity's Web server has encryption capability to protect your card from fraudulent access. If you have any concerns, mail a check.
A basic characteristic of a charity or philanthropy is its nonprofit status (many organizations today prefer the term not-for-profit) -- eligibility that must be documented by the Internal Revenue Service before an organization can solicit charitable donations or gifts. Small charities or churches with annual incomes of less than $5,000 do not have to apply for tax exemption. According to the Council of Better Business Bureaus, organizations that solicit contributions and memberships generally fall into one of the tax-exempt categories described below:
Internal Revenue Code 501(c)(3)
This code includes groups whose purposes are charitable, educational, religious, scientific, literary or supporting national or international amateur sports competitions, the prevention of cruelty to children or animals and testing related to public safety. (All except the last of these are deductible on your federal income taxes.)
But just because an organization has tax-exempt status doesn't mean that your gifts will automatically be tax-deductible. For example, gifts to charities located in foreign countries are not, in most cases, deductible on U.S. federal income tax forms. Whether donations to a charity are tax-deductible is determined by its "foundation status." Within these 501(c)(3) organizations, there are three basic designations:
- Public charity -- one that receives a sizable part of its income from the public (broadly, not just from family and friends) or the government (This is defined under IRS codes 509(a)(1) through 509(a)(4).)
- Private foundation -- an organization that gets most of its income from investments and endowments and uses that money to award grants to other groups (This falls under IRS Code 509(a).)
- Private operating foundation -- a private foundation that donates most of its assets directly to the causes it represents, rather than awarding grants to other charities (IRS Code 4942(j)(3))
Individuals who give to the private charities, private operating foundations and certain private foundations are allowed to deduct donations that represent up to 50 percent of their adjust gross income if they itemize on their federal tax returns. (Since 1987, tax reform acts have prohibited short-form filers from taking these deductions. Earlier this year, President Bill Clinton proposed that taxpayers who do not itemize be allowed to take deductions for charitable donations. Stay tuned -- this issue is going to keep coming up.)
If you give to private foundations, generally, you will be able to deduct up to 30 percent of your adjusted gross income. Corporations making contributions to 501(c)(3) organizations are allowed to deduct all contributions up to an amount typically equal to 10 percent of their taxable income. This applies without regard to foundation status.
Internal Revenue Code 501(c)(4)
This classification covers organizations that lobby legislative bodies on behalf of specific causes and that work primarily in social welfare activities. This group also includes some volunteer fire departments, civic organizations and local employee associations.
Contributions to 501(c)(4) organizations are not deductible as charitable donations. (Exceptions are volunteer fire departments and similar groups collecting funds to be used for public purposes and most veterans' organizations, covered under 501(c)(19), if 90 percent of their membership consists of U.S. Armed Forces veterans.) Interestingly, the IRS says that donations to 501(c)(4) groups can be deducted as business expenses.
Internal Revenue Code 501(c)(6)
This code covers trade associations and boards, chambers of commerce, real estate boards and business leagues. The IRS says that contributions to these organizations are not deductible as charitable donations on your federal taxes, but they can be deducted as a business expense if they are "ordinary and necessary" to the taxpayer's business. (Read more on corporate giving.)
Other tax-exempt organizations to which you can make tax-deductible gifts include corporations (Federal Reserve Banks, Federal Credit Unions) organized under Acts of Congress, cooperative hospital associations and cooperative service organizations of operating educational organizations.
What If I Don't Have a Lot of Money to Give to Charity?
Believe it or not, there are some charities that claim they need volunteers every bit as much as they need money to make their efforts successful. So if you don't have much money, give the gift of your time and caring by volunteering. (By the way, if you, as a volunteer, have out-of-pocket expenses (including transportation costs), these may be tax-deductible.)
Two years after The UPS Foundation published a national survey on volunteerism, nonprofits say they have made progress in recruiting and managing volunteers but still consider it one of the most significant challenges they face. The major finding of the survey was that volunteers are more likely to donate time when they believe that their time will be used effectively. Around 40 percent of the people who responded to the survey said they had stopped volunteering because the charity with which they worked made poor use of their time.
You don't have to find an organized charity in order to do something important. You can buy a pizza and take it to a family whose father is out of work. Or donate a book to your local library, take your newspapers to the recycling bin or read to an elderly friend who lives alone. After all, they say that charity (or philanthropy) begins at home.