When you mention the word "technology," most people think about computers. Virtually every facet of our lives has some computerized component. The appliances in our homes have microprocessors built into them, as do our televisions. Even our cars have a computer. But the computer that everyone thinks of first is typically the personal computer, or PC.
Click on the various parts of the PC to learn more about how they work.
A PC is a general purpose tool built around a microprocessor. It has lots of different parts -- memory, a hard disk, a modem, etc. -- that work together. "General purpose" means that you can do many different things with a PC. You can use it to type documents, send e-mail, browse the Web and play games.
Now, we will talk about PCs in the general sense and all the different parts that go into them. You will learn about the various components and how they work together in a basic operating session. You'll also find out what the future may hold for these machines.
Caching - The storing of frequently used data in extremely fast RAM that connects directly to the CPU
Virtual memory - Space on a hard disk used to temporarily store data and swap it in and out of RAM as needed
Click on the various PC part labels to learn more about how they work.
Defining a PC
Here is one way to think about your PC:
"A PC is a general-purpose information processing device. It can take information from a person (through the keyboard and mouse), from a device (like a floppy disk or CD) or from the network (through a modem or a network card) and process it. Once processed, the information is shown to the user (on the monitor), stored on a device (like a hard disk) or sent somewhere else on the network (back through the modem or network card)."
We have lots of special-purpose processors in our lives. An MP3 Player is a specialized computer for processing MP3 files. It can't do anything else. A GPS is a specialized computer for handling GPS signals. It can't do anything else. A Gameboy is a specialized computer for handling games, but it can't do anything else. A PC can do it all because it is general-purpose.
Motherboard - This is the main circuit board that all of the other internal components connect to. The CPU and memory are usually on the motherboard. Other systems may be found directly on the motherboard or connected to it through a secondary connection. For example, a sound card can be built into the motherboard or connected through PCI.
Power supply - An electrical transformer regulates the electricity used by the computer.
Hard disk - This is large-capacity permanent storage used to hold information such as programs and documents.
Operating system - This is the basic software that allows the user to interface with the computer.
Monitor - The monitor is the primary device for displaying information from the computer.
Keyboard - The keyboard is the primary device for entering information into the computer.
Mouse - The mouse is the primary device for navigating and interacting with the computer
Removable storage - Removable-storage devices allow you to add new information to your computer very easily, as well as save information that you want to carry to a different location.
Floppy disk - The most common form of removable storage, floppy disks are extremely inexpensive and easy to save information to.
CD-ROM - CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory) is a popular form of distribution of commercial software. Many systems now offer CD-R (recordable) and CD-RW (rewritable), which can also record.
Flash memory - Based on a type of ROM called electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), Flash memory provides fast, permanent storage. CompactFlash, SmartMedia and PCMCIA cards are all types of Flash memory.
DVD-ROM - DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc, read-only memory) is similar to CD-ROM but is capable of holding much more information.
Click on the various PC part labels to learn more about how they work.
This animation walks you through a typical PC session.
The bootstrap loader loads the operating system into memory and allows it to begin operation. It does this by setting up the divisions of memory that hold the operating system, user information and applications. The bootstrap loader then establishes the data structures that are used to communicate within and between the sub-systems and applications of the computer. Finally, it turns control of the computer over to the operating system.
Once loaded, the operating system's tasks fall into six broad categories:
Processor management - Breaking the tasks down into manageable chunks and prioritizing them before sending to the CPU
Memory management - Coordinating the flow of data in and out of RAM and determining when virtual memory is necessary
Device management - Providing an interface between each device connected to the computer, the CPU and applications
Storage management - Directing where data will be stored permanently on hard drives and other forms of storage
Application Interface - Providing a standard communications and data exchange between software programs and the computer
User Interface - Providing a way for you to communicate and interact with the computer
You open up a word processing program and type a letter, save it and then print it out. Several components work together to make this happen:
The keyboard and mouse send your input to the operating system.
The operating system determines that the word-processing program is the active program and accepts your input as data for that program.
The word-processing program determines the format that the data is in and, via the operating system, stores it temporarily in RAM.
Each instruction from the word-processing program is sent by the operating system to the CPU. These instructions are intertwined with instructions from other programs that the operating system is overseeing before being sent to the CPU.
All this time, the operating system is steadily providing display information to the graphics card, directing what will be displayed on the monitor.
When you choose to save the letter, the word-processing program sends a request to the operating system, which then provides a standard window for selecting where you wish to save the information and what you want to call it. Once you have chosen the name and file path, the operating system directs the data from RAM to the appropriate storage device.
You click on "Print." The word-processing program sends a request to the operating system, which translates the data into a format the printer understands and directs the data from RAM to the appropriate port for the printer you requested.
You open up a Web browser and check out stuff.dewsoftoverseas.com. Once again, the operating system coordinates all of the action. This time, though, the computer receives input from another source, the Internet, as well as from you. The operating system seamlessly integrates all incoming and outgoing information.
You close the Web browser and choose the "Shut Down" option.
The operating system closes all programs that are currently active. If a program has unsaved information, you are given an opportunity to save it before closing the program.
The operating system writes its current settings to a special configuration file so that it will boot up next time with the same settings.
If the computer provides software control of power, then the operating system will completely turn off the computer when it finishes its own shut-down cycle. Otherwise, you will have to manually turn the power off.
As the computer moves off the desktop and becomes our constant companion, augmented-reality displays will overlay computer-generated graphics to the real world.
Beyond EUVL, researchers have been looking at alternatives to the traditional microprocessor design. Two of the more interesting emerging technologies are DNA computers and quantum computers.
DNA computers have the potential to take computing to new levels, picking up where Moore's Law leaves off. There are several advantages to using DNA instead of silicon:
As long as there are cellular organisms, there will be a supply of DNA.
The large supply of DNA makes it a cheap resource.
Unlike traditional microprocessors, which are made using toxic materials, DNA biochips can be made cleanly.
DNA computers are many times smaller than today's computers.
DNA's key advantage is that it will make computers smaller, while at the same time increasing storage capacity, than any computer that has come before. One pound of DNA has the capacity to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. The computing power of a teardrop-sized DNA computer, using the DNA logic gates, will be more powerful than the world's most powerful supercomputer. More than 10-trillion DNA molecules can fit into an area no larger than 1 cubic centimeter (.06 inch3). With this small amount of DNA, a computer would be able to hold 10 terabytes (TB) of data and perform 10-trillion calculations at a time. By adding more DNA, more calculations could be performed.
Unlike conventional computers, DNA computers could perform calculations simultaneously. Conventional computers operate linearly, taking on tasks one at a time. It is parallel computing that will allow DNA to solve complex mathematical problems in hours -- problems that might take electrical computers hundreds of years to complete. You can learn more about DNA computing in How DNA Computers Will Work.
Today's computers work by manipulating bits that exist in one of two states: 0 or 1. Quantum computers aren't limited to two states; they encode information as quantum bits, or qubits. A qubit can be a 1 or a 0, or it can exist in a superposition that is simultaneously 1 and 0 or somewhere in between. Qubits represent atoms that are working together to serve as computer memory and a microprocessor. Because a quantum computer can contain these multiple states simultaneously, it has the potential to be millions of times more powerful than today's most powerful supercomputers. A 30-qubit quantum computer would equal the processing power of a conventional computer capable of running at 10 teraops, or trillions of operations per second. Today's fastest supercomputers have achieved speeds of about 2 teraops. You can learn more about the potential of quantum computers in How Quantum Computers Will Work.
Photo courtesy IBM By the end of the decade, we could be wearing our computers instead of sitting in front of them.
Already we are seeing powerful computers in non-desktop roles. Laptop computers and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have taken computing out of the office. Wearable computers built into our clothing and jewelry will be with us everywhere we go. Our files will follow us while our computer provides constant feedback about our environment. Voice- and handwriting-recognition software will allow us to interface with our computers without using a mouse or keyboard. Magnetic RAM and other innovations will soon provide our PC with the same instant-on accessibility that our TV and radio have.
One thing is an absolute certainty: The PC will evolve. It will get faster. It will have more capacity. And it will continue to be an integral part of our lives.