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Photography is undoubtedly one of the most important inventions in history -- it has truly transformed how people conceive of the world. Now we can "see" all sorts of things that are actually many miles -- and years -- away from us. Photography lets us capture moments in time and preserve them for years to come.
A fully manual single-lens-reflex camera
The basic technology that makes all of this possible is fairly simple. A still film camera is made of three basic elements: an optical element (the lens), a chemical element (the film) and a mechanical element (the camera body itself). As we'll see, the only trick to photography is calibrating and combining these elements in such a way that they record a crisp, recognizable image.
There are many different ways of bringing everything together.Now, we'll look at a manual single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera. This is a camera where the photographer sees exactly the same image that is exposed to the film and can adjust everything by turning dials and clicking buttons. Since it doesn't need any electricity to take a picture, a manual SLR camera provides an excellent illustration of the fundamental processes of photography.
But how can a piece of glass do this? The process is actually very simple. As light travels from one medium to another it changes speed. Light travels more quickly through air than it does through glass, so a lens slows it down.
When lightwaves enter a piece of glass at an angle, one part of the wave will reach the glass before another, and so will start slowing down first. This is something like pushing a shopping cart from pavement to grass, at an angle. The right wheel hits the grass first and so slows down while the left wheel is still on the pavement. Because the left wheel is briefly moving more quickly than the right wheel, the shopping cart turns to the right as it moves onto the grass.
The effect on light is the same -- as it enters the glass at an angle, it bends in one direction. It bends again when it exits the glass because parts of the lightwave enter the air and speed up before other parts of the wave. In a standard converging, or convex lens, one or both sides of the glass curves out. This means rays of light passing through will bend toward the center of the lens on entry. In a double convex lens, such as a magnifying glass, the light will bend when it exits as well as when it enters.
This effectively reverses the path of light from an object. A light source -- say a candle -- emits light in all directions. The rays of light all start at the same point -- the candle's flame -- and then are constantly diverging. A converging lens takes those rays and redirects them so they are all converging back to one point. At the point where the rays converge, you get a real image of the candle. In the next couple sections, we'll look at some of the variables that determine how this real image is formed.
The angle of light entry changes when you move the object closer or farther away from the lens. You can see this in the diagram below. The light beams from the pencil point enter the lens at a sharper angle when the pencil is closer to the lens and a more obtuse angle when the pencil is farther away. But overall, the lens only bends the light beam to a certain total degree, no matter how it enters. Consequently, light beams that enter at a sharper angle will exit at a more obtuse angle, and vice versa. The total "bending angle" at any particular point on the lens remains constant.
As you can see, light beams from a closer point converge farther away from the lens than light beams from a point that's farther away. In other words, the real image of a closer object forms farther away from the lens than the real image from a more distant object.
You can observe this phenomenon with a simple experiment. Light a candle in the dark, and hold a magnifying glass between it and the wall. You will see an upside down image of the candle on the wall. If the real image of the candle does not fall directly on the wall, it will appear somewhat blurry. The light beams from a particular point don't quite converge at this point. To focus the image, move the magnifying glass closer or farther away from the candle.
This is what you're doing when you turn the lens of a camera to focus it -- you're moving it closer or farther away from the film surface. As you move the lens, you can line up the focused real image of an object so it falls directly on the film surface.
A camera lens is actually several lenses combined into one unit. A single converging lens could form a real image on the film, but it would be warped by a number of aberrations.
One of the most significant warping factors is that different colors of light bend differently when moving through a lens. This chromatic aberration essentially produces an image where the colors are not lined up correctly.
Cameras compensate for this using several lenses made of different materials. The lenses each handle colors differently, and when you combine them in a certain way, the colors are realigned.
In a zoom lens, you can move different lens elements back and forth. By changing the distance between particular lenses, you can adjust the magnification power -- the focal length -- of the lens as a whole.
A lens with a rounder shape (a center that extends out farther) will have a more acute bending angle. Basically, curving the lens out increases the distance between different points on the lens. This increases the amount of time one part of the light wave is moving faster than another part, so the light makes a sharper turn.
Increasing the bending angle has an obvious effect. Light beams from a particular point will converge at a point closer to the lens. In a lens with a flatter shape, light beams will not turn as sharply. Consequently, the light beams will converge farther away from the lens. To put it another way, the focused real image forms farther away from the lens when the lens has a flatter surface.
Increasing the distance between lens and the real image actually increases the total size of the real image. If you think about it, this makes perfect sense. Think of a projector: As you move the projector farther away from the screen, the image becomes larger. To put it simply, the light beams keep spreading apart as they travel toward the screen.
The same basic thing happens in a camera. As the distance between the lens and the real image increases, the light beams spread out more, forming a larger real image. But the size of the film stays constant. When you attach a very flat lens, it projects a large real image but the film is only exposed to the middle part of it. Basically, the lens zeroes in on the middle of the frame, magnifying a small section of the scene in front of you. A rounder lens produces a smaller real image, so the film surface sees a much wider area of the scene (at reduced magnification).
Professional cameras let you attach different lenses so you can see the scene at various magnifications. The magnification power of a lens is described by its focal length. In cameras, the focal length is defined as the distance between the lens and the real image of an object in the far distance (the moon for example). A higher focal length number indicates a greater image magnification.
A standard 50 mm lens doesn't significantly shrink or magnify the image.
Different lenses are suited to different situations. If you're taking a picture of a mountain range, you might want to use a telephoto lens, a lens with an especially long focal length. This lens lets you zero in on specific elements in the distance, so you can create tighter compositions. If you're taking a close-up portrait, you might use a wide-angle lens. This lens has a much shorter focal length, so it shrinks the scene in front of you. The entire face is exposed to the film even if the subject is only a foot away from the camera. A standard 50 mm camera lens doesn't significantly magnify or shrink the image, making it ideal for shooting objects that aren't especially close or far away.
As it turns out, the term photography describes the photographic process quite accurately. Sir John Herschel, a 19th century astronomer and one of the first photographers, came up with the term in 1839. The term is a combination of two Greek words -- photos meaning light and graphein meaning writing (or drawing).
The term camera comes from camera obscura, Latin for "dark room." The camera obscura was actually invented hundreds of years before photography. A traditional camera obscura was a dark room with light shining through a lens or tiny hole in the wall. Light passed through the hole, forming an upside-down real image on the opposite wall. This effect was very popular with artists, scientists and curious spectators.
The chemical component in a traditional camera is film. Essentially, when you expose film to a real image, it makes a chemical record of the pattern of light.
It does this with a collection of tiny light-sensitive grains, spread out in a chemical suspension on a strip of plastic. When exposed to light, the grains undergo a chemical reaction.
Once the roll is finished, the film is developed -- it is exposed to other chemicals, which react with the light-sensitive grains. In black and white film, the developer chemicals darken the grains that were exposed to light. This produces a negative, where lighter areas appear darker and darker areas appear lighter, which is then converted into a positive image in printing.
Color film has three different layers of light-sensitive materials, which respond, in turn, to red, green and blue. When the film is developed, these layers are exposed to chemicals that dye the layers of film. When you overlay the color information from all three layers, you get a full-color negative.
The plates in the iris diaphragm fold in on each other to shrink the aperture and expand out to make it wider.
The length of exposure is determined by the shutter speed. Most SLR cameras use a focal plane shutter. This mechanism is very simple -- it basically consists of two "curtains" between the lens and the film. Before you take a picture, the first curtain is closed, so the film won't be exposed to light. When you take the picture, this curtain slides open. After a certain amount of time, the second curtain slides in from the other side, to stop the exposure.
When you click the camera's shutter release, the first curtain slides open exposing the film. After a certain amount of time, the second shutter slides closed, ending the exposure. The time delay is controlled by the camera's shutter speed knob.
This simple action is controlled by a complex mass of gears, switches and springs, like you might find inside a watch. When you hit the shutter button, it releases a lever, which sets several gears in motion. You can tighten or loosen some of the springs by turning the shutter speed knob. This adjusts the gear mechanism, increasing or decreasing the delay between the first curtain opening and the second curtain closing. When you set the knob to a very slow shutter speed, the shutter is open for a very long time. When you set the knob to a very high speed, the second curtain follows directly behind the first curtain, so only a tiny slit of the film frame is exposed at any one time.
The ideal exposure depends on the size of the light-sensitive grains in the film. A larger grain is more likely to absorb light photons than a smaller grain. The size of the grains is indicated by a film's speed, which is printed on the canister. Different film speeds are suited to different types of photography -- 100 ISO film, for example, is optimal for shots in bright sunlight, while 1600 film should only be used in relatively low light.
Inside a manual SLR camera, you'll find an intricate puzzle of gears and springs. Click on each picture for a high-resolution close-up shot.
As you can see, there's a lot involved in getting the exposure right -- you have to balance film speed, aperture size and shutter speed to fit the light level in your shot. Manual SLR cameras have a built-in light meter to help you do this. The main component of the light meter is a panel of semi-conductor light sensors that are sensitive to light energy. These sensors express this light energy as electrical energy, which the light meter system interprets based on the film and shutter speed.
In the next section, we'll see how an SLR camera body directs the real image to the viewfinder before you take the shot, and then directs it to the film when you press the shutter button.
When you click the shutter button, the camera quickly switches the mirror out of the way, so the image is directed at the exposed film. The mirror is connected to the shutter timer system, so it stays open as long as the shutter is open. This is why the viewfinder is suddenly blacked out when you take a picture.
The mirror in an SLR camera directs the real image to the viewfinder. When you hit the shutter button, the mirror flips up so the real image is projected onto the film.
In this sort of camera, the mirror and the translucent screen are set up so they present the real image exactly as it will appear on the film. The advantage of this design is that you can adjust the focus and compose the scene so you get exactly the picture you want. For this reason, professional photographers typically use SLR cameras.
These days, most SLR cameras are built with both manual and automatic controls, and most point and shoot cameras are fully automatic. Conceptually, automatic cameras are pretty much the same as fully manual models, but everything is controlled by a central microprocessor instead of the user. The central microprocessor receives information from the auto-focus system and the light meter. Then it activates several small motors, which adjust the lens and open and close the aperture. In modern cameras, this a pretty advanced computer system.
Automatic point-and-shoot camera use circuit boards and electric motors, instead of gears and springs.
In the next section, we'll look at the other end of the spectrum -- a camera design with no complex machinery, no lens and barely any moving parts.
A pinhole camera is simply a box with a tiny hole in one side and some film or photographic paper on the opposite size. If the box is otherwise "light-tight," the light coming through the pinhole will form a real image on the film. The scientific principle behind this is very simple.
If you were to shine a flashlight in a dark room, through a tiny hole in a wide piece of cardboard, the light would form a dot on the opposite wall. If you moved the flashlight, the light dot would also move -- light beams from the flashlight move through the hole in a straight line.
In a larger visual scene, every particular visible point acts like this flashlight. Light reflects off each point of an object and travels out in all directions. A small pinhole lets in a narrow beam from each point in a scene. The beams travel in a straight line, so light beams from the bottom of the scene hit the top of the piece of film, and vice-versa. In this way, an upside down image of the scene forms on the opposite side of the box. Since the hole is so small, you need a fairly long exposure time to let enough light in.
There are a number of ways to build this sort of camera -- some enthusiasts have even used old refrigerators and cars as light-tight boxes. One of the most popular designs uses an ordinary cylinder oatmeal box, coffee can, or similar container. Its easiest to use a cardboard container with a removable plastic lid.
You can build this camera in a few simple steps:
The first thing to do is paint the lid black, inside and out. This helps light-proof the box. Be sure to use flat black paint, rather than glossy paint that will reflect more light.
Cut a small hole (about the size of a matchbox) in the center of the canister bottom (the nonremovable side).
Cut out a piece of heavy-duty aluminum foil, or heavy black paper, about twice the size of the hole in the bottom of the canister.
Take a No. 10 sewing needle and carefully make a hole in the center of the foil. You should only insert the needle halfway, or the hole will be too big. For best results, position the foil between two index cards and rotate the needle as you push it through.
Tape the foil over the hole in the bottom of the canister, so the pinhole is centered. Attach the foil securely, with black tape, so light only shines through the pinhole.
All you need for the shutter is a piece of heavy black paper large enough to cover most of the cannister bottom. Tape one side of the paper securely to the side of the cannister bottom, so it makes a flap over the pinhole in the middle. Tape the other side of the flap closed on the other side of the pinhole. Keep the flap closed until you are ready to take a picture.
To load the camera, attach any sort of film or photographic paper to the inside of the canister lid. Of course, for the film to work, you must load it and develop it in complete darkness. With this camera design, you won't be able to simply drop the film off at the drug store -- you'll have to develop it yourself or get someone to help you.
Choosing a good camera design, film type and exposure time is largely a matter of trial and error. But, as any pinhole enthusiast will tell you, this experimentation is the most interesting thing about making your own camera. To find out more about pinhole photography and see some great camera designs, check out some of the sites listed in the Links section.
Throughout the history of photography, there have been hundreds of different camera systems. But amazingly, all these designs -- from the simplest homemade box camera to the newest digital camera -- combine the same basic elements: a lens system to create the real image, a light-sensitive sensor to record the real image, and a mechanical system to control how the real image is exposed to the sensor. And when you get down to it, that's all there is to photography!